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Molecular and Epigenetic Basis of Extracellular Vesicles Cell Repair Phenotypes in Targeted Organ-specific Regeneration

[ Vol. 22 , Issue. 2 ]


Ismail Muhamad Fareez*, Wu Yuan Seng, Ramli Muhammad Zaki, Aazmi Shafiq and Ismail Mohamad Izwan   Pages 132 - 150 ( 19 )


Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are released by most of the cells, constitute a new system of cell-cell communication by transporting DNA, RNA, and proteins in various vesicles namely exosomes, apoptotic bodies, protein complexes, high-density lipid (HDL) microvesicles, among others. To ensure accurate regulation of somatic stem cell activity, EVs function as an independent metabolic unit mediating the metabolic homeostasis and pathophysiological of several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, immune diseases, and cancer. Whist examining the EV biomolecules cargos and their microenvironments that lead to epigenetic alteration of the cell in tissue regeneration, studies have gained further insights into the biogenesis of EVs and their potential roles in cell biology and pathogenicity. Due to their small size, non-virulence, flexibility, and ability to cross biological barriers, EVs have promising therapeutic potentials in various diseases. In this review, we describe EV’s mechanism of action in intercellular communication and transfer of biological information as well as some details about EVinduced epigenetic changes in recipient cells that cause phenotypic alteration during tissue regeneration. We also highlight some of the therapeutic potentials of EVs in organ-specific regeneration.


Cell communication, cell signalling, cellular therapy, epigenetics, exosomes, extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, regenerative medicine


Department of Oral Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, Saujana Putra Campus, 42610 Jenjarom, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Biosciences, MAHSA University, Saujana Putra Campus, 42610 Jenjarom, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Royal College of Medicine Perak (UniKL RCMP), Jalan Greentown 30450 Ipoh Perak Darul Ridzuan, Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Selangor Branch, Shah Alam Campus, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Sarawak Branch, Mukah Campus, KM 7.5, Jalan Mukah-Oya, 96400, Mukah, Sarawak

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