X. Wang, P. Liao, X. Fan, Y. Wan, Y. Wang, Y. Li, Z. Jiang, X. Ye, X. Mo, K. Ocorr, Y. Deng, X. Wu and W. Yuan Pages 1385 - 1396 ( 12 )
Apoptosis is a widespread phenomenon and its dysregulation may result in a variety of human pathologies, such as cancer, autoimmune diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. CXXC-type zinc finger protein 5 (CXXC5) is commonly considered as a tumor suppressor undergoing deregulation or deletion in hematonosis. But it has implied involvement in apoptosis indirectly and the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated CXXC5-induced apoptosis as well as its underlying mechanism. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay suggested that CXXC5 induced cell death and caspase-3 activity in primary rat cortical neurons. Further colorimetric TUNEL assay, Hoechst staining and flow cytometric assay indicated a time-dependent apoptosis in which the activities of caspase-8 and caspase-3 were both regulated via CXXC5 according to enzymatic activity assay, Hoechst staining and Western blotting. Transcription reporter assay and Western blotting showed that CXXC5 resulted in activation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), initiated the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and cross-linked with the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Being a bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) downstream regulator, and also a transcription factor, cellular co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation results indicate that CXXC5 co-localized and interacted with Smads. Western blotting and nuclear fraction extraction implied that CXXC5 facilitated Smad3 phosphorylation and Smad4 nuclear translocation, and that co-expression of Smad together with CXXC5 resulted in higher TNF-α reporter activity. In sum, CXXC5 appears to regulate the TNF-α apoptosis pathway by associating with Smads.
Apoptosis, Caspase-3, CXXC5, FRET, Smads, TNF-α.
Center for Heart Development, Key Lab of MOE for Development Biology and Protein Chemistry, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, Hunan, P.R. China.