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Molecular Pathways, Targeted Therapies, and Proteomic Investigations of Colorectal Cancer

[ Vol. 23 , Issue. 1 ]


Azmi Yerlikaya* and Sezgin Zeren   Pages 2 - 12 ( 11 )


According to the GLOBOCAN 2020 data, colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The risk factors for colorectal cancer include a diet abundant with fat, refined carbohydrates, animal protein, low fiber content, alcoholism, obesity, long-term cigarette smoking, low physical activity, and aging. Colorectal carcinomas are classified as adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine, squamous cell, adenosquamous, spindle cell, and undifferentiated carcinomas. In addition, many variants of colorectal carcinomas have been recently distinguished based on histological, immunological, and molecular characteristics. Recently developed targeted molecules in conjunction with standard chemotherapeutics or immune checkpoint inhibitors provide promising treatment protocols for colorectal cancer. However, the benefit of targeted therapies is strictly dependent on the mutational status of signaling molecules (e.g., KRAS) or mismatch repair systems. Here it is aimed to provide a comprehensive view of colorectal cancer types, molecular pathways associated, recently developed targeted therapies, as well as proteomic investigations applied to colorectal cancer for the discovery of novel biomarkers and new targets for treatment protocols.


Colorectum, cancer, MSS, MSI, targeted therapies, proteomics.


Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Kutahya Health Sciences University, Kutahya, Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kutahya Health Sciences University, Kutahya

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