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Glaucoma: Biological Mechanism and its Clinical Translation

[ Vol. 23 , Issue. 6 ]


Sandra C. Durán-Cristiano*   Pages 479 - 491 ( 13 )


Glaucoma is a common cause of visual loss and irreversible blindness, affecting visual and life quality. Various mechanisms are involved in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis and functional and structural loss in the visual system. The prevalence of glaucoma has increased in several countries. However, its early diagnosis has contributed to prompt attention. Molecular and cellular biological mechanisms are important for understanding the pathological process of glaucoma and new therapies. Thus, this review discusses the factors involved in glaucoma, from basic science to cellular and molecular events (e.g., mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, the cholinergic system, and genetic and epigenetic factors), which in recent years have been included in the development of new therapies, management, and diagnosis of this disease.


Glaucoma, oxidative stress, apoptosis, excitotoxicity, cholinergic system, disease.


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