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<i>Ocimum sanctum</i> [Tulsi] as a Potential Immunomodulator for the Treatment of Ischemic Injury in the Brain

[ Vol. 24 , Issue. 1 ]


Inderjeet Yadav, Ravi Kumar, Zeeshan Fatima* and Velayudhan Rema*   Pages 60 - 73 ( 14 )


<p>Stroke causes brain damage and is one of the main reasons for death. Most survivors of stroke face long-term physical disabilities and cognitive dysfunctions. In addition, they also have persistent emotional and behavioral changes. The two main treatments that are effective are reperfusion with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and recanalization of penumbra using mechanical thrombectomy. However, these treatments are suitable only for a few patients due to limitations such as susceptibility to hemorrhage and the requirement for administering tissue plasminogen activators within the short therapeutic window during the early hours following a stroke. The paucity of interventions and treatments could be because of the multiple pathological mechanisms induced in the brain by stroke. The ongoing immune response following stroke has been attributed to the worsening brain injury. Hence, novel compounds with immunomodulatory properties that could improve the outcome of stroke patients are required. Natural compounds and medicinal herbs with anti-inflammatory activities and having minimal or no adverse systemic effect could be beneficial in treating stroke. <i>Ocimum sanctum</i> is a medicinal herb that can be considered an effective therapeutic option for ischemic brain injury. <i>Ocimum sanctum</i>, commonly known as holy basil or “Tulsi,” is mentioned as the “Elixir of Life” for its healing powers. Since antiquity, Tulsi has been used in the Ayurvedic and Siddha medical systems to treat several diseases. It possesses immuno-modulatory activity, which can alter cellular and humoral immune responses. Tulsi can be considered a potential option as an immuno-modulator for treating various diseases, including brain stroke. </p><p> In this review, we will focus on the immunomodulatory properties of Tulsi, specifically its effect on both innate and adaptive immunity, as well as its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, which could potentially be effective in treating ongoing immune reactions following ischemic brain injury.</p>


Medicinal plant, <i>Ocimum sanctum</i>, immunomodulator, ischemic injury, brain, stroke.


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