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Intracellular Ellagic Acid Derived from Goat Urine DMSO Fraction (GUDF) Predicted as an Inhibitor of c-Raf Kinase

[ Vol. 24 , Issue. 2 ]


Ajay Kumar Raj, Kiran Bharat Lokhande, Tanay Kondapally Prasad, Rasika Nandangiri, Sumitra Choudhary, Jayanta Kumar Pal and Nilesh Kumar Sharma*   Pages 264 - 279 ( 16 )


<p>Background: Dietary chemicals and their gut-metabolized products are explored for their anti-proliferative and pro-cell death effects. Dietary and metabolized chemicals are different from ruminants such as goats over humans. <p> Methods: Loss of cell viability and induction of death due to goat urine DMSO fraction (GUDF) derived chemicals were assessed by routine in vitro assays upon MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Intracellular metabolite profiling of MCF-7 cells treated with goat urine DMSO fraction (GUDF) was performed using an in-house designed vertical tube gel electrophoresis (VTGE) assisted methodology, followed by LC-HRMS. Next, identified intracellular dietary chemicals such as ellagic acid were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against transducers of the c-Raf signaling pathway employing molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. <p> Results: GUDF treatment upon MCF-7 cells displayed significant loss of cell viability and induction of cell death. A set of dietary and metabolized chemicals in the intracellular compartment of MCF-7 cells, such as ellagic acid, 2-hydroxymyristic acid, artelinic acid, 10-amino-decanoic acid, nervonic acid, 2,4-dimethyl-2-eicosenoic acid, 2,3,4'- Trihydroxy,4-Methoxybenzophenone and 9-amino-nonanoic acid were identified. Among intracellular dietary chemicals, ellagic acid displayed a strong inhibitory affinity (-8.7 kcal/mol) against c-Raf kinase. The inhibitory potential of ellagic acid was found to be significantly comparable with a known c-Raf kinase inhibitor sorafenib with overlapping inhibitory site residues (ARG450, GLU425, TRP423, VA403). <p> Conclusion: Intracellular dietary-derived chemicals such as ellagic acid are suggested for the induction of cell death in MCF-7 cells. Ellagic acid is predicted as an inhibitor of c-Raf kinase and could be explored as an anti-cancer drug.</p>


Ellagic acid, c-Raf kinase, breast cancer, molecular dynamics simulations, signal transduction, inhibitors, goat urine.


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