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Oxidative <i>versus</i> Reductive Stress in Breast Cancer Development and Cellular Mechanism of Alleviation: A Current Perspective with Anti-breast Cancer Drug Resistance

[ Vol. 24 , Issue. 2 ]


Suman Kumar Ray, Erukkambattu Jayashankar, Ashwin Kotnis and Sukhes Mukherjee*   Pages 205 - 216 ( 12 )


Redox homeostasis is essential for keeping our bodies healthy, but it also helps breast cancer cells grow, stay alive, and resist treatment. Changes in the redox balance and problems with redox signaling can make breast cancer cells grow and spread and make them resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generation and the oxidant defense system are out of equilibrium, which causes oxidative stress. Many studies have shown that oxidative stress can affect the start and spread of cancer by interfering with redox (reduction-oxidation) signaling and damaging molecules. The oxidation of invariant cysteine residues in FNIP1 is reversed by reductive stress, which is brought on by protracted antioxidant signaling or mitochondrial inactivity. This permits CUL2FEM1B to recognize its intended target. After the proteasome breaks down FNIP1, mitochondrial function is restored to keep redox balance and cell integrity. Reductive stress is caused by unchecked amplification of antioxidant signaling, and changes in metabolic pathways are a big part of breast tumors' growth. Also, redox reactions make pathways like PI3K, PKC, and protein kinases of the MAPK cascade work better. Kinases and phosphatases control the phosphorylation status of transcription factors like APE1/Ref-1, HIF-1, AP-1, Nrf2, NF-B, p53, FOXO, STAT, and - catenin. Also, how well anti-breast cancer drugs, especially those that cause cytotoxicity by making ROS, treat patients depends on how well the elements that support a cell's redox environment work together. Even though chemotherapy aims to kill cancer cells, which it does by making ROS, this can lead to drug resistance in the long run. The development of novel therapeutic approaches for treating breast cancer will be facilitated by a better understanding of the reductive stress and metabolic pathways in tumor microenvironments.


Oxidative stress, reductive stress, redox signaling, breast cancer, cellular alleviation, drug resistance.


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