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The Sumoylation Modulated Tumor Suppressor p53 Regulates Cell Cycle Checking Genes to Mediate Lens Differentiation

Author(s):

Xiangcheng Tang, Zhigang Chen, Mi Deng, Ling Wang, Qian Nie, Jiawen Xiang, Yuan Xiao, Lan Yang, Yizhi Liu and David Wan-Cheng Li*   Pages 1 - 10 ( 10 )

Abstract:


The tumor suppressor p53 is a master regulator of apoptosis and also plays a key role in cell cycle checking. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that p53 directly regulates Bak in mouse JB6 cells (Qin et al. 2008. Cancer Research. 68(11):4150) and that p53-Bak signaling axis plays an important role in mediating EGCG-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we have recently demonstrate that the same p53-Bak apoptotic signaling axis executes an essential role in regulating lens cell differentiation (Deng et al., 2012. Curr. Mol. Med.). In addition, we have also shown that p53 controls both transcription factors, C-Maf and Prox-1 (Liu et al., 2012. Curr. Mol. Med.) as well as lens crystalline genes,αA, β- and γ-crystallins (Ji et al., 2013. Curr. Mol. Med.; Hu et al., 2014, Curr. Mol. Med.). Here, we have examined whether p53 also regulates other known target genes during its modulation of lens differentiation. Immunohistochemistry revealed that both the cell cycle checking genes, p21 and Gadd45α and the apoptotic genes, Bcl-2 and PUMA, display developmental changes associated with p53 during mouse lens development. Knockdown of p53 in the mouse lens epithelial cells caused inhibition of lens differentiation. Associated with this inhibition, the cell cycle genes displayed significant downreglation, the apoptotic genes was also attenuated but to a much less degree. In addition, we found that bFGF can induce dose-dependent upregulation of the upstream kinases, CHK1/2 and ERK1/2, both known to phosphorylate p53 and activate the later. Furthermore, We showed that in both developing lens and human lens epithelial cells, p53 can be co-localized with the catalytic subunit of the protein phoshphatase-1 (PP-1), suggesting that PP-1 regulates p53 phosphorylation status both in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that during mouse lens development, p53 activity is regulated by ERK and CHK kinases-mediated activation, and by PP-1-mediated inactivation. p53 can regulate multiple groups of genes to mediate lens differentiation.

Keywords:

p53, p21, Gadd45α, Bcl-2, PUMA, PP-1, CHK1/2, ERK1/2, lens Differentiation

Affiliation:

The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, #7 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510230, The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, #7 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510230, The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, #7 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510230, The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, #7 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510230, The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, #7 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510230, The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, #7 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510230, The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, #7 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510230, The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, #7 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510230, The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, #7 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510230, The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, #7 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510230



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