Shirin Mahmoodi, Navid Alexis Nezafat*, Manica Negahdaripour and Younes Ghasemi*
Background: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a rare population of tumor cells, which play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, and maintenance. The concept that cancer cells arise from stem cells was presented about 150 years ago. Nowadays, because of the heterogeneity of tumor cells, this hypothesis has been renewed. CSCs are resistant to chemo-and radio-therapy; therefore, targeting CSCs could be a novel and effective strategy to struggle with tumor cells.
Objective: In this mini review article, we highlight that different immunotherapeutic approaches, which can be used to target cancer cells and to eradicate different tumor cells, one of the most important targets are specific markers like CD44, CD133, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and SOX family members that have been recognized on the CSCs surface as CSC antigens. This article emphasizes on recent advances CSCs in cancer therapy.
Results: Our results present that CSC antigens play an important role in tumor initiating, especially in the cells that are resistant to chemo and radiotherapy drugs. Therefore, they are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy; for instance, in developing different types of cancer vaccines or antibodies against tumor cells.
Conclusion: We intended to briefly summarize the current studies related to targeting the CSC antigens by cancer immunotherapy based on their properties. Moreover, we highlight that CSC antigens possess targeting activity in the treatment of cancer patients.
Cancer stem cell antigen, Cancer immunotherapy, Heterogeneity, Target, Tumor cells, Eradicate
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz