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Human Papillomavirus Genome based Detection and Typing: A Holistic Molecular Approach

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Abhilasha Gautam, Mallikarjuna R. Gedda, Madhukar Rai, Shyam Sundar and Jaya Chakravarty*   Pages 237 - 246 ( 10 )

Abstract:


Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a species specific double-stranded DNA virus infecting human cutaneous or mucosal tissues. The genome structure of HPV is extremely polymorphic hence making it difficult to discriminate between them. HPV exhibits numerous dissimilar types that can be subdivided into high-risk (HR), probably high-risk and low-risk (LR), causing numerous types of cancers and warts around the genital organs in humans. Several screening methods are performed in order to detect cytological abnormalities and presence or absence of HPV genome. Currently available commercial kits and methods are designed to detect only a few HR/LR-HPV types, which are expensive adding to the economic burden of the affected individual and are not freely available. These gaps could be minimized through Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) method, which is a gold standard and a cost-effective technique for the detection of most HPV (both known and unknown) types by using specific consensus primers in minimal lab setup. In this context, numerous studies have validated the effectiveness of different sets of consensus primers in the screening of HPVs. Numerous consensus primers, such as E6, E6/E7, GP-E6/E7, MY09/11, GP5+/GP6+, SPF10, and PGMY09/11 have been developed to detect the presence of HPV DNA. In addition, HPV detection sensitivity could be achieved through consensus primer sets targeting specific ORF regions like L1 and E6, which may finally assist in better diagnosis of several unknown HR-HPVs. The present review, provides a summary of the available methods, kits and consensus primer sets for HPV genome based detection, their advantages and limitations along with future goals to be set for HPV detection.

Keywords:

Cancer, consensus primers, HPV, Open Reading Frame, PCR, Holistic molecular approche.

Affiliation:

Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005



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