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The Effects of Butyric Acid on the Differentiation, Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Autophagy of IPEC-J2 Cells

[ Vol. 20 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Yuan Yang, Jin Huang, Jianzhong Li, Huansheng Yang* and Yulong Yin   Pages 306 - 316 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background: Butyric acid (BT), a short-chain fatty acid, is the preferred colonocyte energy source. The effects of BT on the differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis of small intestinal epithelial cells of piglets and its underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.

Methods: In this study, it was found that 0.2-0.4 mM BT promoted the differentiation of procine jejunal epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells. BT at 0.5 mM or higher concentrations significantly impaired cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, BT at high concentrations inhibited the IPEC-J2 cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase.

Results: Our results demonstrated that BT triggered IPEC-J2 cell apoptosis via the caspase8-caspase3 pathway accompanied by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TNF-α production. BT at high concentrations inhibited cell autophagy associated with increased lysosome formation. It was found that BT-reduced IPEC-J2 cell viability could be attenuated by p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190. Moreover, SB202190 attenuated BT-increased p38 MAPK target DDIT3 mRNA level and V-ATPase mRNA level that were responsible for normal acidic lysosomes.

Conclusion: In conclusion, 1) at 0.2-0.4 mM, BT promotes the differentiation of IPEC-J2 cells; 2) BT at 0.5 mM or higher concentrations induces cell apoptosis via the p38 MAPK pathway; 3) BT inhibits cells autophagy and promotes lysosome formation at high concentrations.

Keywords:

Butyrate, p38 MAPK, apoptosis, autophagy, V-ATPase, lysosome.

Affiliation:

Hunan International Joint Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, Nutrition and Human Health Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha City, Hunan 410081, Hunan International Joint Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, Nutrition and Human Health Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha City, Hunan 410081, Hunan International Joint Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, Nutrition and Human Health Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha City, Hunan 410081, Hunan International Joint Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, Nutrition and Human Health Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha City, Hunan 410081, Hunan International Joint Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, Nutrition and Human Health Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha City, Hunan 410081



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