Suman K. Ray, Neha Masarkar and Sukhes Mukherjee* Pages 484 - 494 ( 11 )
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) are a growing public health problem. There is a paucity of sensitive biomarkers to detect AKI, early CKD, and ameliorate extra-renal complications. Klotho protein, detected mainly in the kidneys, regulates renal health and functions as a co-receptor for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) signaling. It is now coming to be known for its extreme pleiotropic actions. These include cytoprotection via anti-oxidation, anti-senescence, anti-apoptosis, renoprotective effects, promotion of angiogenesis and vascularisation, inhibition of fibrogenesis, and stem cell preservation. Emerging clinical studies suggest kidney damage to be a perpetual state of renal Klotho deficiency. In AKI, Klotho levels in plasma and/or urine possibly will serve as an initial biomarker for kidney parenchymal injury. In CKD, Klotho levels may also be an indicator of early disease as well as predict the rate of progression. Earlier studies using ELISA as a technique reveal a correlation between plasma Klotho, eGFR, serum creatine, and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) levels. Thereby preventing the decline of Klotho levels by various mechanisms can retard CKD advancement and improve renal function. Substantial data indicate Klotho can be therapeutically included as an individualized regimen for managing CKD patients. Considerable research is required in investigating the role of soluble Klotho as a biomarker in patients with different types and severity of kidney diseases, which will be highlighted in our review.
AKI, Biomarkers, CKD, eGFR, FGF-23, Klotho.
Independent Researcher; All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Saket Nagar, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh-462020, Department of Biochemistry All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Saket Nagar, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh-462020, Department of Biochemistry All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Saket Nagar, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh-462020