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A Review of DNA and Histone Methylation Alterations in the New Era of Diagnosis and Treatment of Retinal Diseases

Author(s):

Faezeh Maroufi and Seyed Ahmad Rasoulinejad*   Pages 1 - 13 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Epigenetics has an important role in gene regulation and other cellular processes. DNA methylation, as one of the main mechanisms of epigenetics, is a type of post-replication modifications. Aberrant DNA methylation can alter gene expression patterns; so, plays a considerable role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. DNA methylation alterations in promoter of specific genes can be used for diagnosis and proprietary targets for treatment that known as “biomarker”. Early diagnosis and prevention may be possible by these biomarkers. According to the recent studies, DNA methylation abnormalities have an important role in retinogenesis and pathogenesis of retinal diseases. Retinal diseases are the main cause of blindness and severe visual loss in the world and will continue to increase. Also, they inflict enormous burden on society and health care systems. Therefore, it is important to focus on the better recognition and prevention of retinal diseases, and fining new targets for treatment. DNA methylation lionized as attractive therapeutic targets due to its reversibility. Epigenetic therapy has a high potency in treatment of retinal diseases. Here, we reviewed the DNA and histone methylation alterations in common retinal diseases, focusing on age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment (RD), retinitis pigmentosa, retinal aging and retinoblastoma, and then we surveyed some new approaches of epigenetic therapy in retinal disorders.

Keywords:

DNA methylation, epigenetics, gene expression, hypermethylation, retinal diseases. DNA methylation, epigenetics, gene expression, hypermethylation, retinal diseases.

Affiliation:

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Department of Ophthalmology, Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol



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