Nazmul Haque*, Darius Widera, Vijayendran Govindasamy, Pratiwi Soesilawati and Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
Cell-based regenerative therapies involving stem or progenitor cells are considered as possible therapeutic modalities to treat non-communicable and degenerative diseases. Recently, regenerative outcomes of cell-based therapies have been linked to paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles [EVs] released by the transplanted cells rather than the transplanted cells themselves. EVs contain a cargo that includes microRNAs [miRNAs], mRNAs, as well as proteins. Their role in mediating intercellular communication has been acknowledged in several studies. However, the regenerative potential of the miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins that are present in EVs is a matter of ongoing scientific debate. In this review, we discuss EVs as an alternative to stem cell-based therapy to treat some of the non-communicable and degenerative diseases. Moreover, we also propose that pre-treatment of the cells could help to produce EVs enriched with particular miRNAs, mRNAs, and/or proteins that could support the successful regeneration of a targeted organ.
Exosomes, mesenchymal stem cells, microvesicles, miRNA, mRNA, paracrine factor.
Department of Oral Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, Selangor, Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine Group, School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading, Cryocord Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Cyberjaya, Selangor, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia; e Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebaangsan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia; e Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebaangsan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur