Fahim Rejanur Tasin, Debasish Halder and Chanchal Mandal*
Liver fibrosis is one of the leading causes for cirrhotic liver disease and the lack of therapies to treat fibrotic liver is a major concern. Liver fibrosis is mainly occurred by activation of hepatic stellate cells and some stem cell therapies had previously reported for treatment. However, due to some problems with cell-based treatment, a safe therapeutic agent is vehemently sought by the researchers. Extracellular vesicles are cell-derived nanoparticles that are employed in several therapeutic approaches, including fibrosis, for their ability to transfer specific molecules in the target cells. In this review the possibilities of extracellular vesicles to inactivate stellate cells are summarized and discussed. According to several studies, extracellular vesicles from different sources can either put beneficial or detrimental effects by regulating the activation of stellate cells. Therefore, targeting extracellular vesicles for maximizing or inhibiting their production is a potential approach for fibrotic liver treatment. Extracellular vesicles from different cells can also inactivate stellate cells by carrying out the paracrine effects of those cells, working as the agents. They are also implicated as smart carrier of anti-fibrotic molecules when their respective parent cells are engineered to produce specific stellate cell-regulating substances. A number of studies showed stellate cell activation can be regulated by up/downregulation of specific proteins, and extracellular vesicle-based therapies can be an effective move to exploit these mechanisms. In conclusion, EVs are advantageous nano-carriers with the potential to treat fibrotic liver by inactivating activated stellate cells by various mechanisms.
Extracellular vesicles, Hepatic stellate cells, Inactivation, Liver fibrosis, Therapeutics
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Rare Disease research center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology [KRIBB], 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208