Fong Fong Liew*, Boon Cheng Chew and Der Jiun Ooi*
Wound healing is an elaborated process, well-regulated via cell migration and proliferation. Although the physiological basics of wound healing have been thoroughly investigated and reported, much remain to be studied. Particularly, various studies have demonstrated the immunomodulatory roles of exosomes derived from plant cells, mammalian cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the healing and repair system. The paracrine and therapeutic effects of exosomes are mainly associated with the broad exosomal cargo content comprising of growth factors, cytokines, enzymes, nucleic acids, proteins and lipid signaling molecules. Nevertheless, functional or mechanism pathway of exosomes with reference to overall exosomal cargo remains undetermined. To date, combinatorial analysis strategies employing Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), STRING tools, Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes, Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, as well as Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) have been applied in elucidating network interaction and functional pathway of exosomes. In this review paper, application of combinatorial analysis strategies is demonstrated to better understand on the therapeutic potentials of exosomes in wound healing process. In conclusion, functional modulation of exosomal cargo for specify biological treatment is achievable, modelling of combinatorial analysis strategies will hopefully bridge the research gap and provides a paradigm shift to regenerative processes.
Exosome, healing, combinatorial analysis, STRING tools, Gene Ontology, KEGG Pathway, DAVID and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis
Department of Oral Biology and Biomedical Science, Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, Jalan SP 2, Bandar Saujana Putra, 42610 Jenjarom, Selangor, Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Jalan Universiti, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Department of Oral Biology and Biomedical Science, Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, Jalan SP 2, Bandar Saujana Putra, 42610 Jenjarom, Selangor