Ummi Zulaiqha Hamid, Maw Shin Sim, Rhanye Mac Guad, Vetriselvan Subramaniyan, Mahendran Sekar, Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Shivkanya Fuloria, Ker Woon Choy, Ismail Muhamad Fareez, Srinivasa Reddy Bonam and Yuan Seng Wu* Pages 1 - 13 ( 13 )
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers presented an alarmingly high number of new cancer cases worldwide and are highly characterised by poor prognosis. The poor overall survival is mainly due to late detection and emerging challenges in treatment, particularly chemoresistance. Thus, the identification of novel molecular targets in GI cancer is highly regarded as the main focus. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered as potential novel molecular targets for combating cancer, as they are highly associated with carcinogenesis and have a great impact on cancer progression. Amongst lncRNAs, HOTTIP has demonstrated a prominent oncogenic regulation in cancer progression, particularly in GI cancers, including oesophageal cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and colorectal cancer. This review aimed to present a focused update on the regulatory roles of HOTTIP in GI cancer progression and chemoresistance, as well as deciphering the associated molecular mechanisms underlying their impact on cancer phenotypes and chemoresistance and the key molecules involved. It has been reported that it regulates the expression of various genes and proteins in GI cancers that impact cellular functions, including proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion, apoptosis, chemosensitivity, and tumour differentiation. Furthermore, HOTTIP was also discovered to have a higher diagnostic value as compared to existing diagnostic biomarkers. Overall, HOTTIP has presented itself as a novel therapeutic target and potential diagnostic biomarker in the development of GI cancer treatment.
Molecular targets, lncRNA, HOTTIP, gastrointestinal cancer, cancer treatment, drug discovery.
Department of Pharmaceutical Life Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Department of Pharmaceutical Life Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Department of Biomedical Science and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu 88400, Sabah, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Bioscience and Nursing, MAHSA University, Selangor 42610, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak, Ipoh - 30450, Perak, Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Kedah 08100, Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Kedah 08100, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor, Department of Oral Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, Selangor 42610, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, 15 rue de l’Ecole de Médicine, F-75006, Paris, Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Bioscience and Nursing, MAHSA University, Selangor 42610