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CD155: A Key Receptor Playing Diversified Roles

Author(s):

Shyam Sundar Nandi*, Trupti Gohil, Sonali Ankush Sawant, Upendra Pradeep Lambe, Sudip Ghosh and Snehasis Jana  

Abstract:


Cluster of differentiation (CD155), formerly identified as poliovirus receptor (PVR) and later as immunoglobulin molecule involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, invasion and migration. It is a surface protein expressed mostly on normal and transformed malignant cells. The expression of the receptor varies based on the origin of tissue. The expression of the protein is determined by factors involved in sonic hedgehog pathway, Ras-MEK-ERK pathway and during stress conditions like DNA damage response. The protein uses alternate splicing mechanism, producing four isoforms - two being soluble (CD155β and CD155γ) and two being transmembrane protein (CD155α and CD155δ). Apart from being a viral receptor, researchers have identified CD155 having important roles in cancer research and cell signaling field. The receptor is recognized as biomarker for identifying cancerous tissue. The receptor interacts with molecules involved in cells defense mechanism. The immune-surveillance role of CD155 is being deciphered to understand the mechanistic approach it utilizes as onco-immunologic molecule. CD155 is a non-MHC-I ligand which helps in identifying non-self to NK cells via an inhibitory TIGIT ligand. The TIGIT–CD155 pathway is a novel MHC-I-independent education mechanism for cell tolerance and activation of NK cell. The receptor also has a role in metastasis of cancer and trans endothelial mechanism. In this review, authors discuss the virus-host interaction that occurs via single transmembrane receptor, the poliovirus infection pathway, which is being exploited as therapeutic pathway. The oncolytic virotherapy is now promising way for curing cancer.

Keywords:

CD155, PVR, Poliovirus, Cancer, PDGFR, VEGFR

Affiliation:

National Institute of Virology, (Mumbai unit), (Formerly Enterovirus Research Centre). Haffkine Institute Compound, Indian Council of Medical Research, A. D. Marg, Parel. Mumbai-12, National Institute of Virology, (Mumbai unit), (Formerly Enterovirus Research Centre). Haffkine Institute Compound, Indian Council of Medical Research, A. D. Marg, Parel. Mumbai-12, National Institute of Virology, (Mumbai unit), (Formerly Enterovirus Research Centre). Haffkine Institute Compound, Indian Council of Medical Research, A. D. Marg, Parel. Mumbai-12, National Institute of Virology, (Mumbai unit), (Formerly Enterovirus Research Centre). Haffkine Institute Compound, Indian Council of Medical Research, A. D. Marg, Parel. Mumbai-12, Molecular Biology Division, ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition, Jamai-Osmania PO, Hyderabad, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt Ltd., Thane-West, Maharashtra-400604



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