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Contribution of Stemness-linked Transcription Regulators to the Progression of Breast Cancer

Author(s):

David Segura-Bautista, Guadalupe Maya-Nunez, Arturo Aguilar-Rojas, Maira Huerta-Reyes and Marco Allan Pérez-Solis*  

Abstract:


Although there are currently several factors that allow measuring the risk of having breast cancer or predicting its progression, the underlying causes of this malignancy have remained unknown. Several molecular studies have described some mechanisms involved in the progress of breast cancer. These have helped in identifying new targets with therapeutic potential. However, despite the therapeutic strategies implemented from the advances achieved in breast cancer research, a large percentage of patients with breast cancer die due to the spread of malignant cells to other tissues or organs, such as bones and lungs. Therefore, determining the processes that promote the migration of malignant cells remains one of the greatest challenges for oncological research. Several research groups have reported evidence on how the dedifferentiation of tumor cells leads to the acquisition of stemness characteristics, such as invasion, metastasis, the capability to evade the immunological response, and resistance to several cytotoxic drugs. These phenotypic changes have been associated with a complex reprogramming of gene expression in tumor cells during the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Considering the determining role that the transcriptional regulation plays in the expression of the specific characteristics and attributes of breast cancer during ETM, in the present work, we reviewed and analyzed several transcriptional mechanisms that support the mesenchymal phenotype. In the same way, we established the importance of transcription factors with a therapeutic perspective in the progress of breast cancer.

Keywords:

breast cancer, EMT, transcription, metastasis

Affiliation:

Medical Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine, UMAE Hospital de Gineco Obstetricia no. 4 ‘Luis Castelazo-Ayala’, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Medical Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine, UMAE Hospital de Gineco Obstetricia no. 4 ‘Luis Castelazo-Ayala’, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Medical Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine, UMAE Hospital de Gineco Obstetricia no. 4 ‘Luis Castelazo-Ayala’, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Medical Research Unit in Nephrological Diseases, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Medical Research Unit in Reproductive Medicine, UMAE Hospital de Gineco Obstetricia no. 4 ‘Luis Castelazo-Ayala’, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City



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