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Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Gliomas: Pharmacotherapeutic Potential of Natural Compounds

[ Vol. 14 , Issue. 6 ]

Author(s):

Lalita Guntuku, V.G.M. Naidu and Veera Ganesh Yerra   Pages 567 - 583 ( 17 )

Abstract:


Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors either benign or malignant originating from the glial tissue. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most prevalent and aggressive form among all gliomas, associated with decimal prognosis due to it's high invasive nature. GBM is also characterized by high recurrence rate and apoptosis resistance features which make the therapeutic targeting very challenging. Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that are acting as focal points in diverse array of cellular functions such as cellular energy metabolism, regulation of ion homeostasis, redox signaling and cell death. Eventual findings of mitochondrial dysfunction include preference of glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylation, enhanced reactive oxygen species generation and abnormal mitochondria mediated apoptotic machinery are frequently observed in various malignancies including gliomas. In particular, gliomas harbor mitochondrial structure abnormalities, genomic mutations in mtDNA, altered energy metabolism (Warburg effect) along with mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) enzyme. Numerous natural compounds have shown efficacy in the treatment of gliomas by targeting mitochondrial aberrant signaling cascades. Some of the natural compounds directly target the components of mitochondria whereas others act indirectly through modulating metabolic abnormalities that are consequence of the mitochondrial dysfunction. The present review offers a molecular insight into mitochondrial pathology in gliomas and therapeutic mechanisms of some of the promising natural compounds that target mitochondrial dysfunction. This review also sheds light on the challenges and possible ways to overcome the hurdles associated with these natural compounds to enter into the clinical market.

Keywords:

Apoptosis, cytotoxicity, glioma, mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial membrane potential, natural compounds, oxidative stress, warburg effect.

Affiliation:

, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad, India

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