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Imidazoline Receptor Agonists for Managing Hypertension May Hold Promise for Treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 4 ]


J. Mahmoudi, A. Majdi, S. Lattanzi, M. Di Napoli, E.M. Bershad, C.M.P. Rodrigues and A.A. Divani*   Pages 241 - 251 ( 11 )


Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which accounts for 10% of all strokes, leads to higher morbidity and mortality compared with other stroke subtypes. Hypertension has been recognized as a major risk factor for ICH. Current antihypertensive options have not been fully effective for either prevention of ICH or ameliorating its complications. Therefore, attempts should be made to use novel antihypertensive medications for more effective management of blood pressure (BP) in the acute phase of ICH. Imidazoline receptor (IR) agonists can potentially be effective agents for BP control with the adjunctive ability to attenuate post-ICH brain injury. IR agonists render neuroprotective effects including inhibition of inflammatory reactions, apoptotic cell death, excitotoxicity, and brain edema. Given these properties, the present review aims to focus on the application of IR agonists for managing BP in ICH patients.


Intracerebral haemorrhage, hypertension, imidazoline receptors, inflammation, excitotoxicity, apoptosis.


Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Neurological Clinic, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Department of Neurology, San Camillo de` Lellis District General Hospital, Rieti, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

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