L. Chen, T. Klein and P. S. Leung Pages 995 - 1004 ( 10 )
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors enhance incretin actions and beta-cell function. Concurrently, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors block renal glucose reabsorption promoting excretion. In this study, we investigated the effects of linagliptin (a DPP-4 inhibitor) and BI-38335 (an SGLT2 inhibitor), individually and in combination, on glucose homeostasis, islet function, and pancreatic islet morphology in db/db mice. Diabetic and non-diabetic mice received linagliptin (3 mg/kg), BI-38335 (1 mg/kg), the two drugs in combination or control once daily for 8 weeks. Blood glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Pancreatic islet function and morphology as well as inflammatory factors and tolllike receptor 2 (TLR2) pathways involved in islet inflammation were investigated. Active treatments markedly reduced blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, with the combined treatment showing the greater effects. Insulin resistance was improved in the BI-38335 and combination groups with the enhancement of insulin sensitivity and significant increase of serum adiponectin levels. The combined treatment exhibited greater effects on enhanced islet glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance. Moreover, the combination restored the islet beta-/alpha-cell ratio, reduced beta-cell apoptosis, decreased expression of islet immune cell markers, and suppressed factors related to the TLR2 pathway. In addition, all active treatments reduced serum lipid profiles, though the combination produced more robust effects. Collectively, our data show that combined treatment with BI-38335 and linagliptin work, at least in part, synergistically to benefit islet cell function/architecture and insulin resistance, thus improving glycemic control.
DPP-4 inhibitor, inflammation, insulin sensitivity, islet function, islet morphology, SGLT2 inhibitor, type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, incretin hormone, neogenesis, apoptosis, linagliptin, glucose reabsorption, BI-38335.
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