Y. Tamura, T. Torigoe, G. Kutomi, K. Hirata and N. Sato Pages 1198 - 1206 ( 9 )
Recently, growing evidences that extracellular heat shock protein (HSP) functions as endogenous immunomodulator for innate and adaptive immune responses have been demonstrated. Because HSPs inherently act as chaperones within the cells, passive release such as cell necrosis and active release including secretion in the form of exosome have been suggested for HSP release into extracellular milieu. Such extracellular HSPs have been shown to be activators for innate immune responses through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, it has also been suggested that HSPs augmented the ability of associated innate ligands such as LPS to stimulate cytokine production and dendritic cell (DC) maturation. More interestingly, recent study demonstrated that innate immune responses elicited by both endogenous and exogenous danger signals were spatially and temporally regulated and this can be manipulated using Hsp90 or oxygen-regulated protein 150 (ORP150), thereby controlling the immune responses. We will discuss how spatiotemporal regulation of HSP-chaperoned molecules within antigen-presenting cells affects the antigen cross-presentation and innate immune responses. Precise analysis of HSP biology can lead us to establish outstanding HSPbased immunotherapy.
Danger signal, dendritic cell, endosome, heat shock protein, innate immunity, Toll-like receptor, ultraviolet radiation, infections, chaperones, tumor, immunogenicity, antigenic peptides, necrosis, T cell, proinflammatory signals
Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan.