M.R. Pitman, J.M. Woodcock, A.F. Lopez and S.M. Pitson Pages 1207 - 1219 ( 13 )
FTY720 is a recently approved first line therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. In this context, FTY720 is a pro-drug, with its anti-multiple sclerosis, immunosuppressive effects largely elicited following its phosphorylation by sphingosine kinase 2 and subsequent modulation of G protein-coupled sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 that induces lymphopenia by altering lymphocyte trafficking. A number of other biological effects of FTY720 have, however, been described, including considerable evidence that this drug also has anti-cancer properties. These other effects of FTY720 are independent of S1P receptors, and appear facilitated by modulation of a range of other recently described protein targets by nonphosphorylated FTY720. Here, we review the direct targets of FTY720 that contribute to its anti-cancer properties. We also discuss other recently described protein effectors that, in combination with S1P receptors, appear to contribute to its immunosuppressive effects.
Apoptosis, cancer, FTY720, fingolimod, lymphopenia, lysophospholipid, sphingosine, sphingosine 1-phosphate, therapeutic drug, Gilenya™, myriocin, immunosuppressive activity, immuno-suppressants, toxicity, multiple sclerosis
Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Frome Road, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia.