J. Montalvo, C. Spencer, A. Hackathorn, K. Masterjohn, A. Perkins, C. Doty, A. Arumugam, P. P. Ongusaha, R. Lakshmanaswamy, J. K. Liao, D. C. Mitchell and B. A. Bryan Pages 205 - 219 ( 15 )
The serine/threonine protein kinase paralogs ROCK1 & 2 have been implicated as essential modulators of angiogenesis; however their paralog-specific roles in endothelial function are unknown. shRNA knockdown of ROCK1 or 2 in endothelial cells resulted in a significant disruption of in vitro capillary network formation, cell polarization, and cell migration compared to cells harboring non-targeting control shRNA plasmids. Knockdowns led to alterations in cytoskeletal dynamics due to ROCK1 & 2-mediated reductions in actin isoform expression, and ROCK2-specific reduction in myosin phosphatase and cofilin phosphorylation. Knockdowns enhanced cell survival and led to ROCK1 & 2-mediated reduction in caspase 6 and 9 cleavage, and a ROCK2-specific reduction in caspase 3 cleavage. Microarray analysis of ROCK knockdown lines revealed overlapping and unique control of global transcription by the paralogs, and a reduction in the transcriptional regulation of just under 50% of VEGF responsive genes. Finally, paralog knockdown in xenograft angiosarcoma tumors resulted in a significant reduction in tumor formation. Our data reveals that ROCK1 & 2 exhibit overlapping and unique roles in normal and dysfunctional endothelial cells, that alterations in cytoskeletal dynamics are capable of overriding mitogen activated transcription, and that therapeutic targeting of ROCK signaling may have profound impacts for targeting angiogenesis.
Angiogenesis, cytoskeleton, endothelial cell, rho kinase, ROCK, vascular endothelial growth factor
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Center of Excellence in Cancer Research, 5001 El Paso Drive, Room 2111, El Paso, Texas 79905, USA.