P.V. Licciardi, K. Ververis, M.L. Tang, A. El-Osta and T.C. Karagiannis Pages 640 - 647 ( 8 )
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have emerged as a new generation of anticancer therapeutics. The classical broad-spectrum HDACi typically alter the cell cycle distribution and induce celldeath, apoptosis and differentiation in malignant and transformed cells. This provides the basis for the clinical potential of HDACi in cancer therapy. Currently two compounds, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat, Zolinza™) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin, Istodax™) have been approved for by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Apart from clinical application in oncology, HDACi have also been investigated as potential therapeutics for various pathologies including those of the central nervous system (such as Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis), cardiac conditions (particularly hypertrophy), arthritis and malaria. Further, evidence is accumulating for potent immunomodulatory effects of classical HDACi which is the focus of this review. We review the antiinflammatory effects of HDACi and in particular findings implicating regulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems by HDAC enzymes. The recent findings highlighting the immunomodulatory function of HDAC11 which relates to balancing immune activation versus tolerance are also discussed.
Chromatin modifications, histone acetylation, histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A, HDAC11, immune system, immunomodulation
Epigenomic Medicine, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, 75 Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.