Majid Taati Moghadam, Zahra Chegini, Amin Khoshbayan, Iman Farahani and Aref Shariati* Pages 549 - 561 ( 13 )
Helicobacter pylori, the most frequent pathogen worldwide that colonizes around 50% of the world’s population, causes important diseases such as gastric adenocarcinoma, chronic gastritis, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. In recent years, various studies have reported that H. pylori biofilm may be one of the critical barriers to the eradication of this bacterial infection. Biofilms inhibit the penetration of antibiotics, increase the expression of efflux pumps and mutations, multiple therapeutic failures, and chronic infections. Nanoparticles and natural products can demolish H. pylori biofilm by destroying the outer layers and inhibiting the initial binding of bacteria. Also, the use of combination therapies destroying extracellular polymeric substances decreases coccoid forms of bacteria and degrading polysaccharides in the outer matrix that lead to an increase in the permeability and performance of antibiotics. Different probiotics, antimicrobial peptides, chemical substances, and polysaccharides by inhibiting adhesion and colonization of H. pylori can prevent biofilm formation by this bacterium. Of note, many of the above are applicable to acidic pH and can be used to treat gastritis. Therefore, H. pylori biofilm may be one of the major causes of failure to eradication of infections caused by this bacterium, and antibiotics are not capable of destroying the biofilm. Thus, it is necessary to use new strategies to prevent recurrent and chronic infections by inhibiting biofilm formation.
H. pylori, Biofilm, Gastritis, Antibiotics resistance, New Strategies.
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran