Xin Li, Ross Fasano, Ena Wang, Kai-Tai Yao and Francesco M. Marincola Pages 751 - 765 ( 15 )
Several associations have been described between the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes in certain populations and the risk of developing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Associations between ethnic background and geographic distribution, and relative disease incidence have been reported. Populations in geographical areas at higher risk of developing NPC display HLA distribution patterns different and sometimes opposite from areas of low incidence, whereas populations in areas with intermediate incidence display a totally independent pattern. Two main reasons may explain this association between HLA phenotype distribution and the risk of developing NPC in various populations. First, given the fact that expression of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) proteins by cancer cells is tightly linked with NPC development, HLA may influence the development of NPC by modulating the expression of EBV proteins. This explanation is, however, based primarily on theoretical assumptions given that no clear definition of HLA binding pattern of EBV epitopes has been directly shown to significantly alter the recognition of EBV proteins and the risk of developing the disease. Alternatively, HLA may represent a genetic marker flagging the presence of a NPC predisposition locus in close linkage disequilibrium with the HLA class I region. A critical review of known HLA associations in various geographical areas and their interpretation will be presented in this review.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, human leukocyte antigen, epstein - barr virus, disease associations
Infectious Disease and Immunogenetics Section, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda - Maryland 20892, USA.