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The PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway in Human Pathology

[ Vol. 12 , Issue. 3 ]


M. Saresella, V. Rainone, N. M. Al-Daghri, M. Clerici and D. Trabattoni   Pages 259 - 267 ( 9 )


T-cell activation is dependent on signals delivered through the antigen-specific T-cell receptor and accessory receptors on T-cells. Integration of signals through this family of costimulatory and inhibitory receptors and their ligands regulates the balance between T-cell activation, tolerance, and immunopathology. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, deliver inhibitory signals and exert a vital and diverse range of immunoregulatory roles in T-cell activation, tolerance, and immune-mediated tissue damage. In this review, we revisit current understanding of the immunoregulatory functions of PD-1 and its ligands and their involvement in immune-mediated diseases.


Alzheimer's disease, autoimmunity, costimulation, HIV infection, immune tolerance, multiple sclerosis, PD-1, PD-L1, T-cell activation, immune system, microbial pathogens, antigens, antigenic peptide/major histocompatibility complex, costimulatory signals, phenotype


Don C Gnocchi Foundation, Via Capecelatro 66, 20148 Milan, Italy.

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